1942 WWII Jeep

 
1942 WWII Willys Jeep
S.N. 107862
After finishing the restoration of my Army jeep, I started looking for another project. I found a Navy “slat grill” jeep built on  January 2, 1942. I bought the jeep and towed it  home on September 13, 2003.
The jeep looked pretty good and I thought it was going to be an easy project.

This jeep looks great, but what I didn’t realize at the time was that it was covered with a thick layer of Bondo which concealed
major damage and rust. It would be a much bigger project than I had anticipated.

I burned and scraped the Bondo off the tub down to bare metal.
 My first task was to remove the Bondo. Then I bought a MIG welder and began to learn how to repair sheet metal.

The motor was not operational so I knew that a rebuild would be a part of the project.
 Out comes the motor! Rebuilding the motor was
the most challenging aspect of this restoration. I had never done it before, but what a great learning experience!
I welded the “V” cross member to the frame and rear bumper. The two pieces are joined with bolts and a rivet.

The rear frame and cross member was badly damaged and required new metal and some serious welding.

The gas tank and tank well had to be totally replaced with new metal.
I replaced rusty and damaged panels on both sides of the jeep, the floor, replaced the tank well and side steps. My welding
improved as the project went on.
All the jeeps came out of the factory painted olive drab.
 Wow, this frame is looking good! Note the shiny new break lines. I rebuilt my transmission and replaced the seals in the transfer case.
I test ran the motor before installing the tub. It was a happy day when my rebuilt motor started!
 The project is coming along nicely. I love seeing how old metal can be repaired and renewed.
Jeeps came from the factory painted olive drab. The Navy painted their jeeps battleship grey.
 I painted the tub with a flat Navy gray. Next comes the wiring (much easier to do with the tub off the frame).
Easy boys! And thanks for your help!
 When installing the jeep tub on the frame, I recommend getting help from your neighbors. Watch out for the steering column and the wiring.
 
December 31, 2011
On the last day of 2011, I drove the jeep out of the driveway for the first time and went on a test drive. The 8 and 1/2 year project was nearly complete.
The first 15,000 jeeps were “slat grill.” Later jeeps had the more familiar pressed metal grill.
 I marked the hood “U.S. Navy” and add “Shore Patrol” to the windscreen. Note the Federal siren! It will be used in parades!
A pretty girl sure adds something nice to an old, grey Navy jeep!
 I showed off my jeep at the Military Vehicles Preservation Association Convention which our Military Vehicle Collectors Club of Oregon hosted in Portland (July 2013).
Ready for the parade with my restored jeep and Navy Shore Patrol outfit.

Although I have not served in the military, I am privileged to represent and honor the men and women who serve in the U.S. armed forces whenever I drive my jeep in a parade. Thank you for your service, veterans!

Click here to see a video with pictures of this jeep restoration project.

1944 GPW

1944 WWII Ford Jeep
S.N. 204333

The Laney family jeep was built by Ford and delivered to the Army on May 29, 1944.  It may have been used on an Army post or National Guard unit somewhere on the west coast, perhaps Fort Lewis. My dad purchased the jeep  on March 12, 1967 for $500 from Billy Swaim of Portland.

ROTC Cadets Laney and Lambert at the U. of O.

For the next four years I drove it during my student days at the University of Oregon. My brothers took over the jeep when I left home and each of them enjoyed driving our family jeep. After they left home my dad stored the jeep for some years and then towed it to my home in Portland where I enjoyed taking my children on jeep rides. But the jeep stopped running and was just taking up space in my garage when I discovered a web site that featured restored military jeeps. That sparked my interest! With the blessing of my wife, I began restoring the vehicle back to its’ original military configuration. I never dreamed what a big project this would be or how much fun I would have working on my jeep. The jeep is “parade ready” and I enjoying driving and showing it to honor the men and women serving in the United States military. 

College days at the University of Oregon
Going topless during the summer
The restoration begins (1997)
Making good progress
Four cylinder Ford engine looking pretty
Students helping me install the tub
Parade ready WWII GPW
Driving my jeep in my WWII officers uniform

Click here to see a video of the restoration of the Laney family jeep. 

 

The Laney Jeeps

I am the proud owner of two World War II military jeeps which have given me a great deal of satisfaction and pleasure in restoring and driving these vintage vehicles.

I enjoy jeeps because they are the classic trucks used by the American soldiers who fought and defeated the enemy during the Second World War. When I am working on a jeep or driving my restored jeep I feel a sense of patriotic pride in  our armed forces and what American soldiers, sailors and flyers have done to secure and maintain the freedoms we enjoy in this country. When I drive my jeep with my American flag waving, I’m giving a one jeep salute to those who have served and are presently serving our country.

I hope you enjoy looking at my jeeps. And if you come by on a sunny day, I’d be happy to crank her up and give you a ride. Click on the pictures below to learn more about each of my jeeps.

 

 

1944 GPW S.N 204333

This 1944 WWII jeep has been in our family since 1967. I drove the jeep during my college days and my wife and I dated in this jeep when it was painted blue and had a white vinyl top. In 1997 I began restoring my jeep to its’ original military configuration. I enjoy driving the jeep in parades to honor our veterans.

 

1942 MB S.N.107862

After completing the restoration of my Army jeep, I began looking for another project. I found this early WWII slat grill jeep and began a complete restoration in 2003. I finished the project and drove it for the first time on December 31, 2011. I restored it as a Navy Shore Patrol jeep to honor my dad who was a Navy aviator and my son who is a Navy Commander.

About Carl

J. Carl Laney

Family Background

I  was born in the state of Georgia, the first child of Carl and Clyde Laney. When I was two years old our family moved west and I grew up in Eugene, Oregon. It was there at the University of Oregon that I met the love of my life, Nancy Lilly.  We were married a year after graduating from college  and have four grown children and six  grandchildren.

Spiritual Experience

I was raised in a Christian home and expressed my faith in Jesus as a child. But it was not until my student days at the University of Oregon that I entered into a more personal with God. This was due in large part to the influence a fraternity brother, Bill Hansell, who was active with the ministry of Campus Crusade for Christ. It was the late sixties and a time of radical student activism which included protest marches, demonstrations  and sit-ins.  Everyone was seeking a worthy cause to which to devote their lives.  After much thought and reflection I concluded that the only cause
worthy of lifetime commitment was helping others find peace with God through the Good News of the Bible. It was during my college years that I became a serious minded follower of Jesus. During my junior year at the U. of Oregon I began to sense God’s leading to Christian service and enrolled at Western Seminary after graduating from the University of Oregon.

Personal Interests

Lots of fun catching brook trout in a mountain lake

I enjoy outdoor activities including camping, hiking, fishing, skiing, gardening and canoeing. On a Saturday afternoon you may find me in my garage working on my WWII military jeeps–a 1944 Ford and a 1942 Willys.

 

Nancy and I graduating from the U. of Oregon (1970)

Educational Background

After graduating from the University of Oregon (B. S. in Public Administration), I enrolled at Western Seminary where I earned my Master of Divinity (M.Div.) and Master of Theology (Th.M) degrees.  From Western, I went to Dallas Theological Seminary where I earned my Doctorate of Theology (Th.D).

 

Ministry

Western Seminary, Portland, Oregon

I have been a Bible teacher at Western Seminary in Portland, Oregon since 1977.   I have also served as interim-pastor in a dozen different churches including a Bayview Baptist church on the island of Guam.

I have been privileged to author a number of books, many of which are out of print, but can still be found on Amazon.com or in used book stores. My articles have been published in theological journals and Christian magazines. Some of them can be found on this web site.

My favorite traveling partner, my wife Nancy

My travels have taken me to Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. I have spent many summers in Israel studying, teaching and participating in archaeological excavations. I enjoy teaching the Bible classes and specialize in courses dealing with the historical, geographical and cultural backgrounds of the Bible.

Teaching my students in Israel

Books By Carl Laney

Over the past 40 years it has been my privilege to write or contribute to more than a dozen books on the subject of biblical studies and pastoral ministry. Some of the books are out of print and can be found only as a used book at Amazon. Others are  still available and can be found in Christian bookstores and at Amazon.com

 

The Divorce Myth (Bethany House Publishers, 1981)
This book presents the view that marriage is permanent for life
and that divorce and remarriage is not God’s plan for marriage.

First and Second Samuel (Moody Press, 1981)
A biblical study and commentary on Samuel, Saul and David.

Ezra-Nehemiah (Moody Press, 1982)
A biblical study and commentary on Ezra and Nehemiah.

Marching Orders (Victor Books, 1983)
An exposition of Jesus’ Upper Room Discourse (John 13-17).

Zechariah (Moody Press, 1984)
A biblical study and commentary on the prophecies of Zechariah.

Your Guide to Church Discipline (Bethany House, 1985)
A biblical study of spiritual accountability in the church family.

Balancing Your Act Without Loosing It (Tyndale, 1988)
A study of the major themes in the wisdom books (Job, Proverbs,
Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon).

Bakers Concise Bible Atlas (Baker Book House, 1988)
A historical and geographical study of the biblical lands (with maps).

Divorce and Remarriage: Four Christian Views (IVP, 1990)
I contributed the “no divorce” viewpoint in this four-views book.

New Bible Companion (Tyndale House Publishers, 1990)
A co-authored introduction and commentary on the whole Bible.

Commentary on the Gospel of John (Moody Press, 1992)
A commentary on the 4th Gospel with emphasis on the historical,
cultural and geographical background of the gospel.

Everything I know about success . . . (Kregal, 1996)
A new release of my study of the major themes of the wisdom
books.

Answers to Tough Questions . . . (Kregal, 1997)
A study of the major problem passages of the Bible.

Messiah’s Coming Temple (Kregel, 1997)
A co-authored study of the prophecies regarding the rebuilding
of Jerusalem’s temple (Ezekiel 40-43).

Concise Bible Atlas (Hendrickson, 1999)
A new release of my historical and geographical study
of the biblical lands (with maps).

God (Word Publishing, 1999)
A volume in the Swindoll Leadership Library, this is a
study of the character and attributes of God.

W0W–The Big Picture: The Bible in 7 Minutes A Day (1999)
A condensed Bible divided into 365 daily readings.

Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary (Tyndale House, 2001)
A new release of my introduction and commentary on the Bible. Many have said that this is the most helpful tool in understanding the context of a biblical passage.

“God” in Understanding Christian Theology (Thomas Nelson, 2003)
A reprint of ten major books in the Swindoll Leadership Library including my book, God.

Essential Bible Background: What you should know before you read the
Bible (CreateSpace, 2016)

This introduction to the Bible includes a brief introduction to each book of the Bible and essays on various aspects of biblical studies. It even includes a chapter on humor in the Bible!

Biblical Wisdom: Your Key to Successful Living (CreateSpace, 2017)
This book is an exposition of some major themes of the wisdom books of the Hebrew Bible–Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs. The theme of the book is that living by God’s wisdom is the key to success in life.  This book is a study of Jesus’ inistructions to His disciples in the Upper Room on the night before His death on the cross (John 13-17). 

Discipleship: Training from the Master Disciple Maker  (CreateSpace, 2018). This book is a study of Jesus’ inistructions to His disciples in the Upper Room on the night before His death on the cross (John 13-17). 

Bible Lands Pictures

Jerome, translator of the Latin Vulgate Bible, called a visit to the Holy Land “the Fifth Gospel.” You read it as walk through the land. My first visit to the land of Israel was in the summer of 1973. The experience changed my life forever by introducing me to the geography, history, archaeology and culture of the Land of the Bible. My studies and travels in Israel, Egypt, Greece, Turkey and Italy have provided the  opportunity to take pictures which I incorporate into my Bible lectures and sermons. Looking at pictures of the Bible Lands is the next best thing to being there. You can find great images of sites in Israel at BiblePlaces.com and HolyLandPhotos.com.
The Western Wall–a remnant of the platform wall of the Second (Herod’s) Temple.
The Dome of the Rock on the temple mount–the location of Solomon’s and Herod’s temples.
The 3rd or 4th century AD synagogue at Capernaum
Sunrise on the Sea of Galilee
With Nancy, my traveling companion since our first trip to Israel in 1973
The muddy waters of the Jordan River
The rocky shoreline of the Sea of Galilee
In the cave at Adullam where David hid out when he was being pursued by King Saul.

Introduction to Revelation

FACTS ON REVELATION

Author

The author of Revelation calls himself “John” (1:1,4,9, 22:8).  The only John who
would have been so clearly known to the seven churches of Asia would have been
John the Apostle.  There are many similarities between the Fourth Gospel and
Revelation which serve to confirm Johannine authorship.  Early church tradition
confirms this viewpoint.

Readers

The book is addressed to seven churches of Asia (1:4) which were leading
centers of the province and connected by major travel routes.

Date of Writing

Irenaeus writes that Revelation was recorded “at the close of the reign of
Domitian [A.D. 81-96]” (Against Heresies V.xxx.3).  The weight of historical
evidence points to a date toward the end of the reign of Domitian, around A.D. 95-96.

Historical Setting

The Revelation was received by John while he was in exile on the island of
Patmos late in the reign of Domitian.  Patmos was a small, rocky island in the
Aegean Sea off the coast of Asia Minor, about 35 miles SW of Miletus.  The island,
measuring only six by ten miles, served as a place of banishment in Roman times.
It may have been John’s refusal to submit to the imperial decree of emperor
worship that led to his exile.  Persecution of believers is reflected in the message
of Revelation (1:9, 2:10,13, 6:9).

Purpose

The book of Revelation was written to encourage believers under the
shadow of Roman persecution by showing them the ultimate victory of Christ over His
enemies and to warn the churches of the dangers of spiritual lethargy and apostasy.
The book brings OT prophecy and promises to completion and presents the
glorious Christ directing the churches, judging the world, and ruling His
kingdom.

Theme        The glory, judgment, and triumph of Christ (19:10).

Outline

I.  THE THINGS SEEN  1

A.  Introduction  1:1-3
B.  Salutation  1:4-8
C.  Vision of Christ  1:9-20

II.  THE THINGS WHICH ARE  2-3

A.  Ephesus  2:1-7
B.  Smyrna  2:8-11
C.  Pergamum  2:12-17
D.  Thyatira  2:18-29
E.  Sardis  3:1-6
F.  Philadelphia  3:7-13
G.  Laodicea  3:14-22

III.  THE THINGS WHICH SHALL BE  4-22

A.  The Divine Judge  4-5
B.  Seven Seals  6:1-8:1
C.  Seven Trumpets  8:2-11:19
D.  Explanatory Prophecies  12-14
E.  Seven Bowls  15-16
F.  Judgment on Babylon  17-18
G.  Second Coming of Christ  19
H.  Kingdom and Judgment  20
I.  Eternal State  21:1-22:5
J.  Epilogue  22:6-21

General Epistles Hebrews – Jude

FACTS ON HEBREWS

Author

The author is not identified.  The epistle has been ascribed to Paul, but Hebrews 2:3 presents a
major problem for this viewpoint.  Suggestions include: Barnabas, Apollos, Clement of Rome,
Luke Silas, Philip, Priscilla, and John Mark.  Origin confessed, “Who the author of Hebrews is,
God truly knows.”

Readers

The ancient title designates the readers as “Hebrews,” but the letter does not mention the
readers as either Jews or Gentiles.  Internal evidence suggests that they were Hebrew
Christians, perhaps at Rome (13:24).

Date of Writing

A date of writing in the sixties accords well with the available data.  The epistle may have been
written before the Neronian persecution which began in July of A.D. 64 (12:4).

Historical Setting

Although they had been Christians for some time, the readers were making no spiritual progress
(5:11-12).  They had failed to grow in the Lord, and this was reflected in their Christian conduct
(10:25, 13:2-17).  These Hebrew Christians were looking backward to their Jewish ways instead
of forward to Christ (12:2).  In the face of the hardships of the Christian faith they were in danger
of drifting away (2:1) from the substance, Christ, to the shadows of the OT sacrificial system (10:
1).

Purpose

The purpose of Hebrews is (1) teach concerning the superiority of Christ, (2) warn against
drifting to sin and disobedience, and (3) exhort the readers to move on to maturity in Christ.

Theme

“Christ’s Person and work–the believer’s incentive to maturity and service.”

Outline

I.  Teaching About Christ (person 1-7); (work 8:1-10:18)
II. Exhortations to Maturity  10:19-13:24

FACTS ON JAMES

Author

The author of the epistle identifies himself as “James, bond-servant of God and of the Lord
Jesus Christ.”  Four men by the name of James are mentioned in the NT: James the father of
Judas (not Iscariot), James the son of Zebedee, James the son of Alphaeus, and James the half-
brother of Jesus (Matt. 13:55, Gal. 1:19).  The traditional view from Eusebius on is that the
epistle was authored by James the half-brother of Jesus.  This James was an important leader in
the Jerusalem church (Acts 12:17, 15:13-21, 21:8) and needed no further identification.

Readers

The letter is addressed to believing Jews scattered throughout the Roman Empire (1:1-2).  Their
scattering was probably the result of persecution which broke out in Jerusalem after the stoning
of Stephen (Acts 8:1, 12:1-23).

Date of Writing

The lack of reference to the Judaizing controversy addressed by the Jerusalem council seems to
indicate a date prior to A.D. 49.  If so, James was the first New Testament epistle.

Historical Setting

The letter indicates that the readers were suffering persecution and trials (1:2-4,12, 2:6, 5:4).
They were also lacking in fervor for good works and the practical application of truth to Christian
living.

Purpose

James insists that saving faith is a working faith, proving its genuineness by what it does.  He
writes to exhort his readers to live out the ethical implications of their faith.

Theme

Tests of a living faith (1:3).

Outline

The epistle of James is difficult to outline because the variety of topics presented do not seem to
follow in specific logical order.  Like Proverbs and other wisdom literature, James sets forth a
variety of practical exhortations on various topics.  The following outline is adapted from the
article by D. Edmond Hiebert, “The Unifying Theme of the Epistle of James,” Bibliotheca Sacra
135 (July-September 1978), pp. 221-24.

I. Faith tested by its response to trial  1:1-18
II.  Faith tested by its response to the Word of God  1:19-27
III. Faith tested by its reaction to partiality  2:1-13
IV. Faith tested by its production of good works  2:14-26
V. Faith tested by its production of self-control  3:1-12
VI Faith tested by its appropriation of true wisdom  3:13-18
VII. Faith tested by its reaction to worldliness  4:1-10
VIII. Faith tested by its avoidance of slander  4:11-12
IX. Faith tested by its avoidance of presumptuous planning  4:13-17
X. Faith tested by its reaction to injustice  5:1-11
XI. Faith tested by its consistence honesty  5:12
XII. Faith tested by its resort to prayer  5:13-18
XIII. Faith tested by its correcting the errant  5:19-20

FACTS ON FIRST PETER

Author

The writer demonstrates an intimate acquaintance with the life and teachings of Jesus (2:19-24,
3:18, 4:1, 5:1,5).  There are remarkable similarities between Peter’s speeches in Acts and his
words in this epistle (Acts 2:32-36 with 1 Peter 1:21).  All evidence points to the Apostle Peter as
author of the letter.

Readers

The epistle is addressed to the believers scattered throughout the provinces of Pontus, Galatia,
Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia (1:1).  Most of the readers were of Gentile background, although
some may have been Hebrew Christians (2:10,12, 4:3).

Date of Writing

The contents of the epistle reflect a concern for impending persecution.  This suggests that the
epistle was written not long before Peter’s death (A.D. 64).  Peter arrived in Rome in A.D. 62 and
probably wrote this letter in A.D. 63 or early 64.

Historical Setting

Prominent in the background of 1 Peter is the theme of suffering due to persecution (1:6-7, 2:11-
20, 3:13-17, 4:3-5,12-19, 5:8-10).  Some believe that the sufferings and persecutions were those
which began due to Nero in A.D. 64.  It is more probable that the sufferings of these readers
were of a general nature which were common to first century Christians.

Peter, probably in Rome (5:13, cf. Rev. 17:5,9, 18:2,10,21), was anticipating more intense
persecution, and wrote to the believers in the provinces to encourage them in their present
struggle.

Purpose

The epistle was written to exhort the readers to conduct themselves in accordance with their
living hope.  The letter confirmed their knowledge of salvation and encouraged them in their
submission to authority and joyful response to suffering.

Theme

Suffering as a Christian and how to endure it triumphantly.

Outline

I. Salvation in Christ 1:1-2:12
II. Submission to Authority   2:11-3:12
III. Suffering for Righteousness   3:13-419
IV. Supervision by Elders  5:1-14

FACTS ON SECOND PETER

Author

Differences in style between 1 and 2 Peter and the lack of external evidence for Petrine
authorship have led to questions regarding the authenticity of this epistle.  But there is no doubt
that the author intended to identify himself as the Apostle Peter.  He refers to himself as “Simon
Peter” (1:1).  He writes of his approaching death (1:14) which was predicted by Jesus (Jn. 21:18-
19).  He claims to be a witness of Jesus’ transfiguration (1:16-17) as was Peter (Matt. 17:1-4).
The evidence points to this epistle being a genuine work of the Apostle Peter.

Readers

The readers are of the epistle are believers (1:1).  They are apparently the same group of
Christians addressed in 1 Peter (2 Pet. 3:1).  Most were of Gentile background, though some
may have been Hebrew Christians.

Date of Writing

When Peter wrote this letter, he believed his death to be imminent (1:14-15).  Since Peter died in
Rome during the Neronian persecution which began after Rome’s burning (July 18, A.D. 64), the
epistle was probably written shortly before Peter’s death in the summer of A.D. 64.

Setting

The problem facing the readers of Second Peter was false teaching.  There were false teachers
within the church who had apostatized from sound doctrine (2:1,21). These false teachers were
advocating a complete abandonment of moral standards (2:10). One of their major doctrinal
deviations was a denial of Christ’s second coming (3:4). Peter devotes most of his third chapter
to this problem.

Purpose

Peter writes to warn his readers against false teachers (2:1-2, 3:17).  Peter intends the letter to
stir the readers to remember the orthodox teachings, and thus encourage growth in true
knowledge of the Lord Jesus (3:1-2,18).

Theme

Growing in the knowledge of Christ (3:18).

Outline

I.  The Nature of True Knowledge  1
II.  The Peril of False Teaching  2
III.  The Coming of the Lord  3

FACTS ON FIRST JOHN

Author

Although the epistle is anonymous, both internal and external evidence support the view that the
author is John the Apostle and author of the Fourth Gospel.  Most scholars recognize the
similarity in thought, vocabulary and style between the Gospel of John and 1 John.

Readers

The readers are believers of Gentile background 3:1-2, 5:21).  Since John spent his later years
at Ephesus, it is likely that the epistle was written from that city to a nearby group of Asian
churches with whom John was personally acquainted.

Date of Writing

The epistle was probably written after the Fourth Gospel since the author seems to assume an
acquaintance on the part of his readers with the facts of the gospel.  The absence of any
reference to suffering would indicate that the letter was written before the persecution of
Domitian around A.D. 95.  Most scholars date the epistle around A.D. 90.

Historical Setting

First John is written to churches in which false prophets had appeared (4:1) who were drawing
Christians from fellowship with the true believers (2:19).  The false teachers claimed a special
illumination by the Spirit (2:20,27) and claimed to have reached a state of moral perfection (1:8-
10).

The chief theological error tempting the readers was a denial of the incarnation of Jesus (2:22, 4:
2).  John combats this error by claiming to have been an eyewitness to the life and ministry of
Christ (1:1-4,8, 2:2, 3:16, 4:10).

Purpose

In his epistle, John combats false teaching with a clear presentation of the truth.  The primary
purpose in writing is to promote fellowship in the body of God (1:3).

Theme

Fellowship in the family of God (1:3).

Outline

I.  Walking in the light 1-2
II.  Abiding in Love  3-4
III. Overcoming by Faith  5

FACTS ON SECOND JOHN

Author

Both internal evidence and early church tradition indicate that this letter was written by the
Apostle John. However, the reference to the author as “the elder” (v. 1) has led some to
conclude that the epistle was written by someone else. Yet the title “elder” would have been a
fitting designation for John since he was advanced in years at the time of writing. Since the letter
bears a close resemblance in language and thought with First John, it is clear that Second John
was also authored by the Apostle.

Readers

John addressed his second letter to the “elect lady.” Scholars have debated whether this refers
to an individual or a church. The use of the second person plural, rather than the singular in
verses 8,19, and 12, may suggest that a community of believers is in mind. The personification of
the church as a lady may be consisted with the idea of the church as the bride of Christ (Eph. 5:
19-32). However, it may be best to interpret “lady” in the simplest, most literal manner as
referring to a Christian lady. Perhaps a local body of believers meeting in her home would also
benefit from the letter.

Date of Writing

The false teaching mentioned in the letter links it closely with the circumstances of First John.
Second John was probably written after First John had been sent, perhaps around A.D. 90.

Historical Setting

While living in Ephesus late in his life, John had apparently become acquainted with the children
of a Christian lady and was pleased to find them believing and living the God’s truth. It may have
been from them that John learned of the false teachers who were denying the humanity of Jesus
(v. 7). These false teachers were traveling among the churches taking advantage of the
hospitality offered by Christian people (verses 10-11). John warns of such men and their ideas
(verses 7, 9), instructing the believers how to respond to such deceivers.

Purpose

The purpose of the letter is to warn the readers of the dangerous error infiltrating their
community by setting by presenting in clear terms the nature of the false teachers and their
doctrine.

Theme

The theme of the epistle is “walking in truth” (v. 4).

Outline

I. The Salutation  1-3
II. The Instruction  4-11
III. The Conclusion 12-13

FACTS ON THIRD JOHN

Author

Although the author of the epistle is not named, he refers to himself as “the elder” and this would
indicate that the same individual authored who authored Second John. The vocabulary and style
also unite it with Second John and point to the Apostle John as the author. Both writers rejoice
over those who are “walking in truth.” We may be confident that the Apostle John authored all
three of the letters which are associated with him.

Reader

The addressee of the epistle is the “beloved Gaius.” Although three other men in the New
Testament are know by this name (Rom. 16:23, 1 Cor. 1:14, Acts 19:29, 20:4,5), it is not likely
that this Gaius should be identified with any other. The Gaius in this letter was a consistent
Christian (3), known for his generous hospitality (5), and a well loved friend of the Apostle John.
The letter was apparently intended to be shared with others in the church community (14).

Date of Writing

Although Third John does refer to a previous letter (v. 9), this does not appear to be a reference
to either First or Second John, so no sequence of communication can be established. The
epistle was probably written about the same time as Second John, around A.D. 90.

Historical Setting

John the Apostle had received a report from those who had visited the community where Gaius
lived (3). John had learned of the faithful character and hospitality demonstrated by Gaius (3,5)
as well as the problem with Diotrephes (9-10) who had usurped authority and was abusing the
brethren. John urges his readers not to imitate the evil actions of Diotrephes.

The Apostle enlists the help of Gaius to assure a welcome and support for the co-workers who
had been rebuffed by Diotrephes (5-8). John expresses his desire to visit Gaius soon and to deal
with the troublemaker in person (10). Demetrius, who is so highly commended in verse 12, may
have served as the carrier of the letter.

Purpose

John writes to commend Gauis for walking in the truth and to encourage the practice of
hospitality so that the messengers from John might receive a proper  welcome when they visit the
congregation. The letter is also intended to censure the conduct of Diotrephes and reveal John’s
plans to deal with the situation in person.

Theme

The theme of Third and Third John is the same,  “walking in truth” (3).

Outline

I.  Commendation of Gaius 1-8
II.  Condemnation of Diotrephes 9-11
III. Commendation of Demetrius 12-14

FACTS ON JUDE

Author

The author identifies himself as “Jude [Gk. Judas], a bond-servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of
James.”  It is unlikely that the author was Judas the apostle (Lk. 6:16), for he seems to
distinguish himself from the apostles (Jude 17).  Both internal evidence and the testimony of the
church fathers indicate that the epistle was written by Jude (or Judas), the half-brother of Jesus
(Matt. 13:55, Mk. 6:3), who came to faith after the resurrection (Jn. 7:5, Acts 1:14).

Readers

Jude wrote to believers (v. 1), but gives no indication as to their specific location.  They had
heard of the words of the apostles and were acquainted with the teachings of Paul (18,19).  They
apparently had some knowledge of Jewish inter-testamental and apocryphal literature, but this
does not demand a Jewish setting.  It is probable that the readers were Palestinian Christians,
both Jews and Gentiles.

Date of Writing

Jude appears to have been written after 2 Peter (A.D. 64) and before the destruction of
Jerusalem (A.D. 70).  The letter was probably written not long after A.D. 64 when the error Peter
had predicted had come to fruition.  The book may be dated around A.D. 65-68.

Historical Setting

Jude writes to deal with an outbreak of false teaching (3-4).  He addresses himself to the same
problem which concerned Peter (2 Pet. 2:1-2,10), and encourages the readers to contend
earnestly for orthodox Christianity (v. 3).  The false teachers were denying Christ and perverting
the doctrine of grace.  They were ruled by their passions (vv. 4,16) and scoffed at the accepted
Christian way (v. 17).

Purpose

The purpose of the letter is to encourage the readers to contend for Christian orthodoxy (v. 3),
to remind them of God’s judgment on the ungodly (v. 5), and to instruct the readers how to offset
the evil effects of the false teachers (17-23).

Theme

Contending for the faith in the face of apostasy.

Outline

I.  Introduction  1-4
II.  Examples of Judgment  5-7
III.  Character of False Teachers  8-16
IV.  Response of Believers  17-23
V.  Benediction  24-25

Paul’s Epistles Romans – Philemon

FACTS ON ROMANS

Author

The Pauline authorship of Romans is almost universally accepted on the basis of internal evidence
(1:1, 15:25, 16:3) and the testimony of the church fathers.  The actual writing was done by Tertius,
Paul’s amanuensis (16:22).

Readers

The letter is addressed to the believers in Rome (1:7).  The church at Rome was predominately
Gentile but with a sizable Jewish minority.

Date of Writing

The epistle was written by Paul toward the end of this third missionary journey in the winter of A.D.
56/57.

Historical Setting

After Paul’s three year ministry in Ephesus, he departed for Greece where he spent the next three
months (Acts 20:3).  Paul spent a good part of that time in Corinth and wrote Romans from that city
(cf. Romans 16:23, 1 Cor. 1:14).  Phoebe, from Cenchrea (Romans 16:1), the eastern seaport of
Corinth, probably carried Paul’s letter to Rome.

Purpose

Paul wrote the epistle to pave the way for his anticipated visit (1:11-13) and to present the Gospel as
he understood and proclaimed it (1:15,16).  His goal was to show the implications of the gospel and
preserve harmony between Jewish and Gentile Christians.

Theme

The theme of Romans is “justification by faith” for all who believe in Jesus (1:16,17).

Outline

I.  The Doctrine of Salvation  1-8
II.  The Unbelief of Israel  9-11
III.  The Conduct of Believers  12-16

FACTS ON FIRST CORINTHIANS

Author

The Pauline authorship of the epistle is clear from 1:1 and 16:21 and is practically uncontested.

Readers

Paul addressed His epistle to believers at Corinth (1:2).  Corinth was a great trade center
strategically situated on the isthmus which links the Peloponnesus with mainland Greece. The city
had two fine ports: Cenchreae on the Aegean Sea to the east, and Lechaeum on the Adriatic Sea to
the west. As a commercial center, Corinth was known for its wealth, indulgence, and immorality. It was
a worship center for Aphrodite, the goddess of love.

Date of Writing

Paul wrote his epistle to the Corinthians from Ephesus (16:8) towards the end of his ministry there
during his third missionary journey (Spring 53 to May 57). The epistle was probably written around
the spring of A.D. 56.

Historical Setting

Paul first visited Corinth in A.D. 51 on his second missionary journey after his ministry in Athens (Acts
18:1). There he met Aquila and Priscilla and joined them in the trade of tent making to provide
financial support while he evangelized the city.  Paul was later joined by Silas and Timothy (Acts
18:5) and the team engaged in a very successful ministry for a year and a half (Acts 18:8,11).

The immediate occasion of Paul’s writing was that he had received a letter (16:17) from the church
inquiring concerning certain problem issues (7:1,25, 8:1, 12:1, 16:1).  First Corinthians constitutes
Paul’s reply.

Purpose

Paul wrote the epistle to correct the disorders within the church and reply to certain questions raised
by the Corinthians.

Theme

The life and conduct of believers.

Outline

I.  Reproofs of the Corinthians  1-6
II.  Replies to the Corinthians  7-16

FACTS ON 2ND CORINTHIANS

Author
The Pauline authorship of Second Corinthians is clearly evidenced in the salutation (1:1) and
throughout the epistle.  The authorship and authenticity of the epistle are practically uncontested.

Readers

The letter is addressed to the believers at Corinth and those scattered throughout Achaia, the
Roman province which included all of the Peloponnesus and much of central Greece.  These would
have included the believers at Athens (Acts 17:34) and Cenchrea (Romans 16:1).

Date of Writing

Second Corinthians was written during Paul’s third missionary journey (spring A.D. 53 – May A.D.
57).  The epistle must have been written in the fall of A.D. 56, a few months before Paul’s anticipated
visit to Corinth (2 Cor. 12:14, 13:1).

Historical Setting

Paul wrote First Corinthians from Ephesus in the spring of A.D. 56.  A riot in the city forced him to
leave Asia for Macedonia (2 Cor. 7:5).  While laboring there he was met by Titus who brought a
favorable report concerning the Corinthian church (2 Cor. 7:6-7,13-15).  With this encouragement
Paul penned his second canonical epistle to the believers at Corinth.

Purpose

The primary purpose of Second Corinthians was to prepare the believers at Corinth for Paul’s third
visit (2 Cor. 12:14, 13:1).  The letter was designed to cement Paul’s bond of love with the Corinthians
and to warn those who persisted in doubting his apostleship.

Theme

“Paul’s pastoral ministry under the New Covenant.”

Outline

I.  The Reconciliation with the Corinthians  1-7
II.  Giving from the Heart  8-9.
III.  Vindicating Paul’s Apostleship  10-13

FACTS ON GALATIANS

Author

The Pauline authorship of the book is confirmed both by internal evidence (1:1, 5:2) and testimony of
the early church.

Readers

Was Galatians written to the churches in the south of the province which Paul and Barnabas
evangelized on their first journey (Acts 13-14)?  Or was the epistle written to a group of churches in
north Galatia which were founded on the second and third journeys (Acts 16:6,19:1)?

The omission of any reference to the decision of the Jerusalem Council in favor of Gentile freedom
from the Mosaic Law (Acts 15) would suggest that Galatians was written before the Council met,
when Paul had visited only the churches of South Galatia.   See the following notes for details on this
view.

Date of Writing

Paul completed his first missionary journey in September of A.D. 49 and probably wrote Galatians
from Antioch in the autumn of that year, just before attending the Jerusalem Council.

Historical Setting

Among the Galatian believers were those who insisted on a Judaistic model for Christianity (1:7,
4:17, 5:10).  They argued full justification could not be experienced apart from the law.

Purpose

Paul’s purpose in writing is to refute the teachings of the Judaizers and defend the gospel of
justification by faith apart from Jewish legalism.

Theme

“Christian freedom from the law” (2:16, 5:1).

Outline

I.  Introduction  1:1-10
II.  The Revelation of the Gospel  1:10-2:21
III.  The Vindication of the Gospel  3-4
IV.  The Application of the Gospel  5:1-6:10
V.  The Conclusion  6:11-18

FACTS ON EPHESIANS

Author

The Pauline authorship of Ephesians is attested both by internal evidence (1:1, 3:1) and writings of
the church fathers.

Readers

The words “at Ephesus” are absent from the oldest Greek manuscripts.  “Ephesians” may have been
addressed to a single church but was later adapted for general reading by deleting the name.  Or it
was written for general publication, and one particular copy was addressed to the church at
Ephesus.  The letter may have been an encyclical, intended to be read by a circle of Christian
communities.

Date

Paul wrote Ephesians during his imprisonment (3:1, 4:1) in Rome (February, A.D. 60 to March, A.D.
62).  This was probably the first of the prison epistles and was written in Rome during the autumn of
A.D. 60.

Historical Setting

Paul first visited Ephesus on his second missionary journey (Acts 18:19).  During his third journey,
Paul spent about three years ministering in Ephesus.  For two of those years Paul taught His
disciples in the school of Tyrannus (Acts 19:8-10, 20:31).

Ephesus ranked with Alexandria and Antioch of Syria as one of the most important cities of the
eastern Mediterranean Roman world.  It was not only an important commercially, but was the worship
center for the Greek goddess Artemis (Diana) whose image was housed in a temple, the Artemsion,
four times the size of the Parthenon.

Purpose

Ephesians sets forth the kind of conduct which is consistent with the believer’s position in Christ.

Theme

“Christian conduct” (4:1)

Outline

I.  SIT: Position in Christ  1-3
II.  WALK: Walk in the World  4:1-6:9
III.  STAND: Stand against the Devil  6:10-24

FACTS ON PHILIPPIANS

Author

The Pauline authorship of Philippians is attested by internal evidence (1:1) and the testimony of
church fathers.

Readers

The church at Philippi may have been largely Gentile for there was apparently no synagogue there
when Paul first visited the city (Acts 16:13,20-21).  The city, named after Philip of Macedon, was
strategically located as the gateway to Europe.  It was situated ten miles north of Neapolis, its port
and terminus of the Ignatian Way.  Philippi commanded the fertile plain through which the Egnatian
way passed.

Date

Philippians was written during Paul’s imprisonment at Rome (1:7,13,17).  Since he is anticipating his
release (1:19, 2:24), the letter was probably written late in his imprisonment, around early spring of
AD 62.

Historical Setting

Paul first visited Philippi on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:11-40).  The immediate occasion
of this letter was the return of Epaphroditus to Philippi following his illness in Rome (2:25-30).  Paul
took the opportunity to commend his fellow-worker and to write the Philippian saints about a variety
of matters.

Philippi was a Roman colony (Acts 16:22) and the people there were recognized as Roman citizens
with the same legal position and privileges as those living in Rome itself.

Purpose

Paul wrote to encourage joy and unity among the believers.  In addition, Paul provided news of his
own circumstances (1:12-26); warned against the influence of the Judaizers (3:2-11); and to
expressed appreciation for the Philippians’ gift (4:10-20).

Theme

“Rejoicing in the Lord in all circumstances” (4:4).

Outline

I. The Progress of the Gospel  1:1-26
II. The Conduct of the Christians  1:27-2:30
III. The Testimony of Paul  3:1-21
IV. The Admonitions to the Philippians  4:1-9
V. Paul’s Appreciation of the Gift  4:10-23

FACTS ON COLOSSIANS & PHILEMON

Author

The Pauline authorship of Colossians and Philemon is clearly indicated by these letters (Col. 1:1,
4:18, Philemon (1,9,19).

Readers

Paul wrote Colossians to believers at Colossae (1:2), but he intended that the Laodiceans also read
the epistle (4:16).  Colossae was located about 10 miles up the Lycus Valley from Laodicea on the
main road to Ephesus, 120 miles to the east.

The letter to Philemon, while being personal in content, is also addressed to the church [at Colossae]
which met at Philemon’s house (2).

Date

The close connection of Philemon with Colossians indicates that they belong to the same period.  It is
probable that Tychicus accompanied by Onesimus carried the letters to Colossae at the same time.
The letters were probably written in the early spring of AD 62, shortly before Paul’s release from
prison.

Historical Setting

The gospel was introduced to Colossae during Paul’s long ministry at Ephesus (Acts 19:10,26), but
Paul had apparently not visited the church (1:4, 2:1).  The occasion of writing was the arrival of
Epaphras from Colossae (1:7-9, 4:12) who brought news of theological error circulating in the
church.  The primary problem was a deficient view of Christ and His work.  Paul immediately sent
Tychicus back to Colossae with a letter for the church and a letter for Philemon, the master of
Onesimus, a runaway slave who had been converted under Paul’s ministry (4:7-9, Philemon 10).

Purpose

Colossians: to extinguish the Colossian error by presenting the truth of Christ and His work.
Philemon: to encourage the reconciliation between Onesimus and his master, Philemon.

Theme

Colossians:  “The preeminence of Christ”

Philemon:    “Reconciliation through a mediator”

Outline

Colossians:        I. The Person of Christ  1:1-23
II. The Ministry of Paul  1:24-2:7
III. The Problem at Colossae  2:8-3:4
IV. The Conduct of the Christian  3:5-4:6
V. The Concluding Personal Note  4:7-18

Philemon:           I. Paul’s Prayer for Philemon  1-7
II. Paul’s Petition for Onesimus  8-20
III. Paul’s Plea for Himself  21-25

FACTS ON FIRST THESSALONIANS

Author

The Pauline authorship of the 1 Thessalonians is attested by internal evidence (1:1) and confirmed
by the early church.

Readers

The letter was written to the believers at Thessalonica.  Located on an excellent harbor at the
northeastern corner of the Thermaic Gulf, Thessalonica was an important commercial center.

Date

Paul visited Thessalonica on his second missionary journey (April 50 – Sept. 52).  The epistle was
written about six months after Paul left Thessalonica, in the early summer of A.D. 51.

Historical Setting

Paul ministered in Thessalonica during his second missionary journey (Acts 17:1-10), but a plot
against his life forced him to flee.  The missionary team journeyed by night to Berea.  Later the Jews
of Thessalonica brought opposition to Berea forcing Paul to depart.  Silas and Timothy stayed to
finish the work in Berea while Paul went on to Athens where the missionary team was reunited
(3:1-2).  Paul wanted to return to Thessalonica, but his plans were thwarted and he had to send
Timothy instead.

While Paul was ministering in Corinth, Timothy returned with a good report about the church.
Encouraged by this report, Paul wrote the Thessalonians, commending their progress and
encouraging them to go on in the faith.

Purpose

The letter is designed to commend the Thessalonians for their steadfastness in the face of conflicts
(2:14) and encourage them to go on in the faith (4:1).  The letter also served to correct certain
errors which had been reported by Timothy.

Theme

“The need for holy living in light of Christ’s coming.”

Outline

I.  Relations with the Thessalonians  1-3
II.  Instructions to the Thessalonians  4-5

FACTS ON SECOND THESSALONIANS

Author

Paul claims to have authored the epistle (1:1, 3:17) and the authenticity of the letter was recognized
by the early church.

Readers

The epistle is addressed to the “church of the Thessalonians” (1:1).  In Paul’s day, Thessalonica was
a teeming metropolis–the largest city of Macedonia.

Date of Writing

Second Thessalonians was written from Corinth perhaps two or three months after Paul wrote First
Thessalonians.  Second Thessalonians should be dated in the summer of A.D. 51.

Historical Setting

The immediate occasion of the writing of the second letter was a report which Paul received
concerning the Thessalonian believers, brought to him perhaps by those who had delivered the first
epistle.

Apparently false teachers at Thessalonica who claimed to have Paul’s teaching had persuaded the
believers that they were living in “the Day of the Lord” (2:2).  In response to this teaching some had
given up their work and were idly waiting for the Lord’s return (3:6-12).  Paul wrote the believers to
deal with their misunderstandings concerning the Day of the Lord.

Purpose

The letter was intended to commend the believers’ growth in faith and love (1:3) and to encourage
their steadfastness under severe persecution (1:4-12).  Paul’s primary purpose, however, was to
correct their misconception that the Day of the Lord had arrived.

Theme

“Corrections concerning the Day of the Lord.”

Outline

I.  Consolation in Affliction  1
II.  Corrected Chronology for the D.L. 2
III.  Requests for Prayer and Discipline  3

FACTS ON FIRST TIMOTHY

Author

Although the Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles has been contested in recent times, Paul
claims to be the author of each (1:1) and this view was accepted by the early church.

Reader

The letter is addressed to Timothy, the young man who had joined Paul on the second journey when
revisited Derbe and Lystra (Acts 16:1-3).  Timothy was probably converted under Paul’s ministry
during the first journey (1 Tim. 1:2).  Timothy accompanied Paul on his third missionary journey (Acts
19:22, 20:4) and was with Paul in Rome during his imprisonment (Phil. 1:1, 2:19-24).  Timothy was
appointed to guide the church at Ephesus while Paul went on to Macedonia (1 Tim. 1:3).

Date of Writing

First Timothy was written soon after Paul’s release from prison, but after his visit to Ephesus.  Paul
wrote the letter from Macedonia, probably in the autumn of AD 62.

Historical Setting

Timothy was ministering as Paul’s representative at the church at Ephesus.  Paul had traveled to
Macedonia (1:3) and there was the possibility of his return to Ephesus being delayed (3:14-15).
Paul recognized Timothy’s need for some instruction on matters of church polity and practice.  The
letter was intended to help Timothy to exercise leadership in these areas.

Purpose

Paul wrote to inform Timothy on matters of church polity and practice, and to back up his leadership
with Paul’s apostolic authority.

Theme

“The polity and practice of the NT church.

Outline

I.  Doctrine of the Church  1
II.  Worship in the Church  2
III.  Leaders in the Church  3
IV.  Teaching in the Church  5
V.  Members of the Church  5:1-6:2
IV.  Charge to Timothy  6:3-21

FACTS ON SECOND TIMOTHY

Author

The apostle Paul claims to have authored Second Timothy (1:1) and the autobiographical remarks
(3:10-11, 4:10-11,19-20) fit his life.

Reader

The letter is addressed to Timothy, Paul’s young associate.  Timothy was from Lystra (Acts 16:1-3).
His father was a Greek and his mother (Eunice) and grandmother (Lois) were devout in their Jewish
faith.  Timothy joined with Paul on his second and third missionary journeys and was with Paul in
Rome during his imprisonment.  Timothy ministered as Paul’s representative in Ephesus (1 Tim. 1:3)
and may have been with the apostle during the last days of his final imprisonment (2 Tim. 4:1,21).

Date

Second Timothy was written by Paul shortly before his death (4:6-8).  Since Paul died in the spring of
AD 68, the epistle was probably written in the autumn of AD 67.

Historical Setting

During Paul’s first imprisonment in Rome he was able to have his own rented quarters and receive
visitors.  His second imprisonment was quite different.  Paul was in prison, having been arrested as a
criminal (2:9).  His death was imminent (4:6-8).  Some of his fellow-workers had deserted him (4:16).
Paul wrote Timothy, who was still in Ephesus, to bring Mark and join him before winter (A.D. 67/68).
Paul was sending Tychicus to replace Timothy at Ephesus (4:12).

Purpose

Second Timothy was written to encourage Timothy in the ministry and outline the course of Christ’s
servant during a time of doctrinal declension.

Theme

“Defending the faith in a time of doctrinal defection.”

Outline

I.  Encouragement for Ministry  1
II.  Directives for Service  2
III.  Warning Concerning Apostasy  3
IV.  Charge of the Apostle  4

FACTS ON PHILEMON

See notes on Colossians (above).

Acts of the Apostles

FACTS ON ACTS

Author

Although the author of Acts is not named, the evidence points to Luke, the
historian, physician, writer and missionary.  The medical vocabulary used in Acts
supports the view that the book was authored by “Luke, the beloved physician” (Col.
4:14).  Luke joined Paul at Troas (16:11) and includes himself in the “we” sections
(16:10-17, 20:5-21:18, 27:1-28:16).
Readers

Acts was written for a prominent individual named Theophilus (1:1).  The
reference to Theophilus is really a dedication characteristic of Graeco-Roman
literature.  The universal scope of Acts indicates that it was written for the church in
general.

Date of Writing

The Book of Acts was probably written in Rome during or after Paul’s first
imprisonment (A.D. 60-62).  Luke wrote his gospel around A.D. 60 and Acts about A.D.
63.

Historical Setting

Acts covers the period from the ascension of Jesus (May 14, A.D. 33)
through Paul’s first imprisonment in Rome (A.D. 60-62).  The book describes the
expansion of the church in Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, and the Mediterranean world.

Purpose

Luke intends his books (Luke and Acts) to present an accurate and orderly
account of the origins and development of the Christian faith.  His first volume presents
the record of Jesus’ Person and work.  Acts traces the advance and development of the
kingdom of God (1:3, 28:31) through the ministry of the Holy Spirit.

Theme

The advance of the church and expansion of God’s kingdom.

Outline

I.  Introduction  1:1-2:4
II.  Witness in Jerusalem  2:5-8:3
III.  Witness in Palestine  8:4-12:25
IV.  Witness in the Mediterranean World  13:1-28:31